3D Touch: what is it and how does it work?
In the latest models of smartphones from AppleA pressure-sensitive display is installed, which literally outputs interaction with the touch screen to another dimension. In addition to touching, svjapa or gestures in which two or more fingers are involved (so-called multitouch), iPhone 6s is also able to respond to the force of pressing. Thus, along with the detection of finger movement in two dimensions (along the X and Y axes), the device can register for a screen shift along the Z axis. The technology is called the new multitouch generation. So what is it - 3D Touch? How it works? Why is it so important? And is there a 3D Touch in the iPhone SE?
Why is this necessary?
3D Touch provides additional featuresinput control. This is similar to the presence of a 2-button mouse: an easy tap on the screen is equivalent to clicking the left button, and pressure is like pressing the right button.
It should be borne in mind that the 3D Touch in the iPhone isNot the Force Touch technology used in the Apple Watch and MacBook trackpads. The latter only registers a touch, and the first detects 2 pressure levels: soft and hard. On the home screen of the phone, clicking on the application icon launches the context menu "Quick Actions" - shortcuts for frequently used functions, such as filming a selfie or writing a text message. A stronger pressure on one of the options performs this action.
Soft press also allows you to viewthe contents of an email or website, and a harder one will open the selected message or page. While only a few applications support this technology, but, as with the multitouch, it is likely that in games it will find more use.
3D Touch in iPhone: what is it and how does it work?
The smartphone senses the force of pressing, usingMicroscopic sensors built into several layers of the screen. Apple itself talks about the 3D Touch, which is such a "technology that starts with a display that detects the applied pressure." More precisely, the pressure creates forces that are detected by sensors, called strain gages.
As sensors, materials are used,which change the electrical signal during bending. A deformation is caused by pressing the screen. Bends even ordinary glass, but the iPhone 6s use a more flexible, specially manufactured by the manufacturer Corning glass.
Most sensory devices determinetouching the display with a "capacitance": the electrical signals passing through the circuits change when they come into contact with the capacitor, i.e., an object carrying an electric charge, such as a human body. When the finger touches a conductive surface, such as glass, it closes the circuit with the capacitive sensors below the surface of the panel, resulting in a detectable change in the electrical signal.
Touch sensors are often made fromindium tin oxide (ITO), an optically transparent material that conducts electricity. They can be considered as wires in a chain, because that's how they behave, although the sensors themselves actually represent a grid of dots on the screen.
Capacitive sensors are integrated in the backlightdisplay of the iPhone, and with each press they measure the microscopic changes in the distance between the cover glass and the matrix of pressure sensors measuring 8 x 12. The technology may seem simple enough, but it's not: there is no tiny ruler to measure the distance between two two-dimensional surfaces. Determining how strongly curved glass requires complex algorithms.
Patents partly reveal what a 3D Touch is. These are capacitive sensors, made in the form of one of several serpentine circuits, which correspond to the orientation of the forces detected by the main strain gauges. According to another patent, the technology includes 2 layers of sensors. The first serves to determine the force, and the second - to compensate for the temperature, since heat can lead to the expansion of materials and the potential for the appearance of false signals. At the corners of the grid, the sensors are rotated 45 ° to detect deformation along the angle, and the internal sensors are oriented parallel to the edges of the display.
Changes in the electrical signal caused byphysical forces on each load cell, determine the so-called. center of force, and then compare the values with the readings of neighboring sensors, so that the position and pressure level are set. As said in the patents, the screen "connects the measured difference with the electronic device". For example, if the iPhone gets more information on the left than on the right, then obviously one side of the display is pressed. When you touch the center of the screen, the signals will be symmetrical. Thus, you can get a fairly accurate picture of where and how much force is applied.
The technology is used in smartphone modelsApple since 6s, so for those who are wondering if there is a 3D Touch on the iPhone SE, the answer will be negative. Not the least role in this also played the price of the device, its small size and the complexity of mass production.
How to enable 3D Touch in iPhone 6? By default, this feature is already activated. But you can turn it off and on again, if desired. To do this, in the general settings, select the item "Special features", then - 3D Touch - and switch the state to the desired one.
Why is it important?
Many are still confused about the fact that this issuch is the 3D Touch, confusing it with a long press - a gesture that already exists on most sensory devices. For example, touch and hold are used to select text or move / delete applications from the main screen. In principle, a weak and strong depression can be simulated by the method of long-term retention, but this will not be so effective.
Why is 3D Touch more than just a trick?
By nature, long-term retentionsome time. It takes about 0.5 seconds to make it work, while pressing provides an instant response to the user's actions. This is the biggest advantage of the iPhone 3D Touch, that this technology significantly saves time and improves the performance of the smartphone.
To create a sense of touch, applyvibration. Apple has already used the haptic in the MacBook trackpad, which does not really move down, but instead vibrates, simulating a button click. This is achieved with a tiny motorized drive called the Taptic Engine.
Taptic Engine in the iPhone 6s smartphone providestactile feedback almost in real time. Apple claims that the vibrating system of a typical phone requires at least 10 oscillations to reach full power, but to start and stop the Taptic Engine requires only 1 cycle, which lasts 10 or 15 ms for a mini or full feedback. This provides a clear tactile feel for soft and hard pressing.
Experts are impressed by the feelings of feedbackiPhone. The sensors determine the force, and then the Taptic Engine provides the correct response. This combination creates a very convincing click without moving parts.
A complex and costly solution
Apple was not the first company that createdpressure-sensitive phone, but it has brought significant investments into this technology. From a technical point of view, the hardware for creating a display that is capable of this is incredibly complex. This takes time, huge costs and investment in production. Since the idea of 3D Touch is not innovative, the success of the iPhone 6s depended on how well its sensitivity to pressure was realized. And Apple succeeded.</ p>>