Occupational diseases: causes of development and prevention
In various branches of industry and agriculturethere are harmful production factors that cause the development of diseases. Such diseases are called professional. All occupational diseases for developmental reasons are divided into several groups:
- due to the influence on the body of industrial dust,
- caused by the influence of physical factors of production,
- caused by chemical factors of production,
- due to the influence of biological factors.
Production dust settles on mucous membranesshells of the airways and eventually this leads to the development of pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis. Occupational diseases of this group are found in workers of the metallurgical and mining industry, masons, miners, grinders.
To the physical factors of production, whichcause occupational diseases, include different types of radiation, high and low temperatures, intense noise, vibration mechanisms. The vibration of the mechanisms leads to the development of a vibrational disease, intense noise to hearing organ diseases, high and low temperatures cause burns and frostbite.
Chemical factors cause acute and chronicintoxication. Especially dangerous are poisoning with salts of heavy metals, various insectofungicides, other inorganic and organic compounds. Getting into the body, even in small amounts, they participate in biochemical reactions occurring in cells and tissues. Chemicals disrupt metabolic processes and cause structural and functional changes in the body.
Industrial toxins can penetrate the body through the respiratory system and skin, causing occupational diseases of the skin and lungs.
Due to biological factorsInfectious and parasitic diseases develop in persons who, due to their professional duties, have contact with infected materials or sick animals.
Diagnose occupational diseases atthe basis of the sanitary and hygienic characteristics of production, the professional history of the patient, the results of clinical, biochemical and functional research methods.
The most important are the data of the professionalanamnesis. In a work history, it is necessary to find out the presence of occupational hazards that contribute to the development of the disease, the duration of their action on the patient's body, and the use of collective and individual protective equipment and their effectiveness.
Prophylaxis of occupational diseasesis to conduct technical and sanitary-hygienic measures at enterprises. Workers are assigned a shorter working day, extended leave. They are provided with free medical and preventive nutrition.
In case of temporary incapacity for work, the reasonwhich are occupational diseases, workers have the right to receive assistance in the amount of wages, significant discounts on the purchase of medicines. Enterprises with harmful production factors use mass and individual protection, maximum mechanization of production, remote control of various production processes.
An important role in reducing the incidence ofpreventive medical examinations of workers engaged in production with harmful production factors. Medical examinations are conducted at least once a year. In pneumoconiosis, the mandatory methods of investigation are lung radiography, functional examination of external respiration, blood analysis. With an increased risk of developing a vibrational disease, a cold test, vibration sensitivity, chest x-ray of the spine and extremities, a general blood test are shown.</ p>>