The rule of imposing a bandage and a tourniquet. Rules for the imposition of bandages. Rules for the imposition of a pressure bandage
Providing first aid to the injured with injuries,fractures, dislocations, ligament injuries, bruises, burns and other things becomes almost impossible without the timely and correct application of the bandage. After all, due to dressing, additional infection of the wound is prevented, as well as stopping bleeding, fixing fractures, and even the healing effect on the wound begins.
Medical dressings and their types
The section of medicine that studies the rules for imposing bandages and harnesses, their types and methods of application, is called desmurgia (from Greek desmos - leash, bandage and ergon - accomplishment, case).
According to the definition, the bandage is a method of treating injuries and injuries, which consists in using:
- dressing material, which is superimposed directly on the wound;
- the outer part of the dressing, which fixes the dressing.
In the role of dressing material, for various reasons, can act:
- special dressings;
- cotton swabs;
- gauze balls.
Protective or soft
They consist of a material that is applied to the wound, and a fixing bandage
Used in most cases: with burns, bruises, open wounds
Immobilization or solid
Consist of dressings and tires
They are used to transport the injured person, in the treatment of bone injuries and their elastic joints
Primary care for injuries
The process of applying a dressing is called bandaging. Its goal is to close the wound:
- to prevent its further infection;
- to stop bleeding;
- to have a curative effect.
General rules for the imposition of dressings for wounds and injuries:
- Wash hands thoroughly with soap, if this is not possible, then at least treat them with a special antiseptic.
- If the injury site is an open wound, then carefully treat the skin around it with alcohol solution, hydrogen peroxide or iodine.
- Place the victim (patient) in a convenient position (sedentary, recumbent), while ensuring free access to the damaged area.
- Become opposite the patient's face in order to observe his reaction.
- Start bandaging with an "open" bandage from left to right, from the periphery of the limbs towards the body, that is, from the bottom up, using two hands.
- The hand should be bandaged in the bent at the elbow state, and the leg - in the straightened.
- The first two or three rounds (tours) must be fastening, for this the bandage is tightly wrapped around the narrowest undamaged place.
- Further bandage follows with a uniform tension, without folds.
- Each turn of the bundle covers the previous one about a third of the width.
- When the injured area is large, one bandage may not be enough, then at the end of the first place the beginning of the second, reinforcing this moment in a circular turn.
- Finish the dressing by making two or three reinforcement bandages.
- As an additional fixation, you can cut the end of the bandage into two parts, cross them with each other, circle around the bandages and tie it together with a strong knot.
The main types of bandage dressings
Before you study the rules for applying bandages, you should familiarize yourself with the types of harnesses and the options for using them.
Kinds of bandages
Cases of use
Thin bandages, the width of which is 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm, and the length of 5 m
They re-bandage the injured fingers
Medium bandages from 10 to 12 cm wide, 5 m long
Suitable for dressing for head, forearm, upper and lower extremities (brushes, feet)
Large bandages, the width of which is more than 14 cm, and the length is 7 m
Used to apply bandages to the chest, thighs
Classification of bandage dressings:
1. By type:
- aseptic dry;
- antiseptic dry;
- hypertensive moist drying;
2. By the method of application:
- circular or spiral;
- eight-shaped or cross-shaped;
- serpentine or creeping;
- turtle bandage: divergent and convergent.
- on the head;
- on the upper limb;
- on the lower limb;
- on the abdomen and pelvis;
- on the chest;
- on the neck.
Rules for the imposition of soft bandages
Bandage bandages are relevant in most cases of injuries. They prevent secondary infection of the wound and minimize the adverse effects of the environment.
The rules for applying a soft bandage are as follows:
1. The patient is placed in a convenient position:
- with injuries of the head, neck, chest, upper limbs - sitting;
- with abdominal injuries, pelvic region, upper thighs - recumbent.
2. Select a bandage according to the type of damage.
3. Conduct the re-banding process, using the basic rules of dressing.
If you have made a dressing, observing the rules of imposing sterile dressings, then the compress will meet the following criteria:
- completely cover the damaged area;
- do not interfere with normal blood and lymph circulation;
- be comfortable for the patient.
Rule of dressing
It is superimposed on the wrist, lower leg, forehead and so on.
Bandage is superimposed spirally, as with kinks, and without them. Bandaging with kinks is best done on parts of the body that have a canonical form
It is applied for the purpose of preliminary fixing of the dressing material on the injured area
It is superimposed in complicated places
During the dressing bandage should describe the figure-eight. For example, a cruciform bandage on the chest is carried out as follows:
stroke 1 - make several circular revolutions through the thorax;
stroke 2 - a bandage through the thorax is made from the right axillary region to the left forearm;
stroke 3 - make a turn through the back on the right forearm across, from where the bandage is re-drawn along the chest in the direction of the left axillary cavity, while crossing the previous layer;
stroke 4 and 5 - the bandage is re-drawn through the back in the direction of the right armpit, making an eight-step step;
fastening stroke - the bandage is wrapped around the chest and fixed
It is a kind of eight. Its superposition, for example, on the shoulder joint is performed according to the following scheme:
stroke 1 - bandage is carried through the thorax from the side of the healthy armpit to the opposite shoulder;
stroke 2 - bandage bypass the shoulder in front, on the outside, behind, through the armpit and lift it obliquely over the shoulder, so as to cross the previous layer;
stroke 3 - bandage is carried through back to the healthy armpit;
move 4 and 5 - repetition of moves from the first to the third, observing that each new layer of bandage is superimposed slightly higher than the previous, forming in the intersection of the pattern of "spikelets"
Used to bandage the area of the joints
Divergent turtle bandage:
Descending turtle bandage:
There are several types of headbands:
1. The "cap";
4. "the cap of Hippocrates";
5. one eye;
6. in both eyes;
7. Neapolitan (in the ear).
With injuries of the frontal and occipital part of the head
With slight injuries of the occipital, parietal, frontal part of the head
When injuries of the frontal part of the skull, face and lower jaw
"The Cap of Hippocrates"
There is damage to the parietal part
If one eye is injured
On both eyes
When both eyes are injured
In case of ear trauma
At the heart of the rule of imposing bandages on the head lies that, regardless of the type, the dressing is carried out with bandages of medium width - 10 cm.
Since it is very important to provide medical assistance in time for any trauma, it is recommended to impose the most simple version of the bandage - "cheepets" - with a general head injury.
Rules for the imposition of the bandage "cap":
1. A piece about a meter long is cut off from the bandage, which will be used as a string.
2. Its middle part is applied to the crown.
3. The ends of the string are held with both hands, it can be done either by an assistant or by the patient himself, if he is conscious.
4. Apply a fixing layer of bandage around the head, reaching the string.
5. Begin to wrap the bandage around the string and on to the head.
6. After reaching the opposite end of the string, the bandage is wrapped again and held around the skull slightly above the first layer.
7. Repeated actions completely covered with a bandage of the scalp.
8. When making the last tour, the end of the bandage is tied to one of the straps.
9. The straps are tied under the chin.
Rule of dressing
Run a bandage twice around the head. The next step is to make the kink and bandage begin to overlap (from the forehead to the back of the head), slightly higher from the circular layer. On the back of the head, another bend is made and they lead the bandage from the other side of the head. The moves are fixed, after which they repeat the procedure, changing the direction of the bandage. The technique is repeated until the crown is fully covered, while remembering to fix every two oblique turns of the bandage
Make two turns around the head. Then the bandage is lowered under the lower jaw, having held it under the right ear. Take him back to the temechka through the left ear, respectively. Do three such vertical turns, after which the bandage from under the right ear is carried to the front of the neck, obliquely across the back of the head and around the head, thus fixing the previous layers. The next step is again lowered from the right side under the lower jaw, trying to completely cover it horizontally. Then the bandage is carried to the nape, repeating this step. Once again repeat the course through the neck, after which finally fixing the bandage around the head
The bandage begins with two strengthening layersbandage, which is conducted in case of a trauma of the right eye from left to right, left - from right to left. After that, the bandage falls from the side of the trauma to the back of the head, starts under the ear, slants the eye through the cheek and is fixed in a circular motion. The step is repeated several times, covering each new layer of bandage the previous one by about half
Bandages with bleeding
Bleeding is a loss of blood in violation of the integrity of blood vessels.
Type of bleeding
Rule of dressing
The blood is bright red and beats with a strong pulsating jet
Tightly compress the area above the wound with a hand, a tourniquet or a twist from the fabric. Type of superimposed bandage - pressing
Blood is colored in a dark cherry color and flows evenly
The injured part of the body should be raised higher, the gauze should be applied to the wound and tightly bandaged, that is, a pressure bandage
The tourniquet is applied underneath the wound!
Blood is excreted evenly from the entire wound
Apply a sterile bandage, after which the bleeding should quickly stop
Combines the characteristics of previous species
Apply a pressure bandage
Capillary bleeding from internal organs
Make a dressing using a plastic bag of ice
General rules for the imposition of bandages for bleeding from the limb:
- Bint put under the limb, slightly above the wound site.
- Attach a pack of ice (ideally).
- Harness strongly stretch.
- Tie the ends.
The main rule of applying bandages is to place the tourniquet over clothing or specially placed cloth (gauze, towel, scarf and so on).
With the right actions, bleeding shouldstop, and the place under the tourniquet - go white. Be sure to put a note on the bandage with the date and time (hours and minutes) of the dressing. After providing first aid, it should not take more than 1.5-2 hours before delivery of the victim to the hospital, otherwise the injured limb will not be saved.
Rules for the imposition of a pressure bandage
Pressing dressings should be applied to reduce all types of external bleeding in places of bruising, as well as to reduce the size of the edema.
Rules for the imposition of a pressure bandage:
- The skin adjacent to the wound (about two to four cm) is treated with an antiseptic.
- If there are foreign objects in the wound, they should be removed immediately.
- As a dressing material, use is made of a ready-made bandage package or a sterile cotton-gauze roll, if not, then a bandage, a clean handkerchief, napkins will do.
- The dressing is fixed on the wound with a bandage, scarf, scarf.
- Try to make the bandage tight, but not pulling the damaged place.
Qualitatively applied pressure bandage shouldstop bleeding. But if she managed to get soaked with blood, then you do not need to remove her before you go to the hospital. It should be simply topped tightly from above, having previously put under another bandage another gauze pack.
Features of an occlusive dressing
An occlusive dressing is applied to ensure a sealed isolation of the damaged area in order to prevent contact with water and air. It is used for penetrating wounds.
Rules for the imposition of an occlusive dressing:
- Place the victim in a sitting position.
- Treat the skin adjacent to the wound with an antiseptic agent (hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, alcohol).
- On the wound and the adjacent area of the body with a radius of five to ten cm, an antiseptic napkin is applied.
- The next layer is applied waterproof and airtight material (necessarily a sterile side), for example, a plastic bag, food film, rubberized cloth, oilcloth.
- The third layer consists of a cotton-gauze pads, which plays the role of constipation.
- All layers are densely fixed with a wide bandage.
When applying the dressing, remember that each new layer of the dressing should be larger than the previous one by 5-10 cm.
Of course, if there is such a possibility, it is betterall use PPI - an individual dressing package, which is a bandage with two attached cotton-gauze pads. One of them is fixed, and the other is freely moving along it.
Application of an aseptic dressing
Aseptic dressing is used in cases whenThere is an open wound and it is required to prevent contamination and foreign particles from getting into it. For this, it is required not only to apply the dressing correctly, which must necessarily be sterile, but also securely fix it.
Rules for the imposition of an aseptic dressing:
- Treat wounds with special antiseptic means, but in no case should water be used for this purpose.
- Attach directly to the injury gauze, a size larger than the wound by 5 cm, previously folded into several layers.
- Top layer of absorbent cotton (easily stratified), which is larger than the gauze by two to three centimeters.
- Tighten the dressing tightly with a bandage or medical adhesive plaster.
Ideally, it is better to use special dry aseptic bandages. They consist of a layer of hygroscopic material that absorbs blood very well and drains the wound.
To better protect the wound from getting dirt and infection, additionally glue the cotton-gauze dressing from all sides to the skin with the help of adhesive plaster. And then fix it with a bandage.
When the dressing is completely soaked in blood, itsIt must be replaced neatly with a new one: completely or only the top layer. If this is not possible, for example, due to the absence of another set of sterile dressings, the wound can be wound up, having previously moistened the soaked bandage with iodine tincture.
Overlay of tire bandages
When providing first aid for fractures, the main thing is to ensure the immobility of the injury site, as a result, to reduce pain and prevent the displacement of bone debris in the future.
The main signs of a fracture:
- Severe pain in the area of the injury, which does not stop for several hours.
- Pain shock.
- With a closed fracture - swelling, swelling, deformation of tissues in the area of damage.
- With an open fracture, a wound from which the bone fragments protrude.
- Limited movement or total absence.
The basic rules of dressing for fractures of limbs:
- The dressing should be immobilized.
- In the absence of special tires, you can use handy things: stick, cane, small boards, ruler and so on.
- Ensure the victim's immobility.
- To fix the fracture, use two tires wrapped with a soft cloth or cotton wool.
- Put tires on the sides of the fracture, they must grasp the joints below and above the damage.
- If the fracture is accompanied by an open wound and heavy bleeding, then:
- above the fracture and wound a tourniquet is superimposed;
- a bandage is applied to the wound;
- On the sides of the injured limb, two tires are applied.
If you impose any type of bandage wrong, then instead of providing first aid, you can cause irreparable harm to the health of the victim, which can lead to death.</ p>>