Unintention of early pregnancy: causes, diagnosis, prevention, treatment
Unexpired pregnancy is not onlyphysical trauma for women, but also moral. It is for this reason that in the article below the maximum amount of information was collected on diagnosis, causes, symptoms, treatment, as well as the prevention of spontaneous abortion.
Unintention of early pregnancy isvery sad and, unfortunately, quite commonplace. According to statistics, every eighth woman's pregnancy is interrupted in the first twelve weeks. Most of them experience a miscarriage, while not suspecting that they were pregnant. And some are told about the possibility of losing the fetus at the first consultations and advise to lie down for preservation.
Drug abortion is considered the least affecting the reproductive function and health of a woman. It is very important not to miss the deadline.
Interruption of pregnancy may not be seena woman in the early stages. Postponement of the monthly is simply written off for a delay, and then begins a profuse bleeding, which is accompanied by a sensation of pain. When the embryo leaves completely, the bleeding and pain cease, the woman may not even know that she was pregnant.
If the fruit does not come out completely, which isthe cause of prolonged bleeding, a woman usually refers to a specialist who ascertains miscarriage. Most doctors, in order to restore the female body, after such a case appoint a course of medical therapy.
Causes of miscarriage may be as follows:
- Hormonal disbalance.
- Genetic abnormalities.
- Infectious diseases.
- Rhesus factor.
- Abortion in the past.
The threat of termination of pregnancy in the second trimester is markedly reduced. According to statistics, in the second trimester miscarriage occurs only in every fiftieth woman.
So, consider in more detail the reasons listed above for miscarriage.
In the female body, hormones and their correctbalance is a necessary condition for the normal course of the pregnancy process. In some cases, a failure in the hormonal background may result in a breakdown. Specialists distinguish progesterone as a very important hormone, which is required to maintain pregnancy. If his shortage was identified in time, the woman is prescribed this hormone in the form of medications, as a result, the fruit can be saved.
In addition, the preservation of the fetus hasimpact of androgen balance. With their overabundance in the body of a pregnant woman, the production of estrogen and progesterone is inhibited, and this is also a threat of miscarriage.
When preparing for pregnancy, a woman shouldto treat all existing chronic diseases. In addition, it is recommended to avoid infectious diseases. After getting into the female organism of the pathogen, the temperature can rise sharply, which also provokes miscarriage.
A particular threat to the fetus is disease,which are transmitted sexually. Therefore, future parents in the preparation for pregnancy should be examined and tested for these diseases. Due to the fact that this type of infection gets to the fetus through the blood, in most cases in the presence of pathology and diagnoses miscarriage.
The lion's share of all miscarriages is exactlythis reason. Physicians call a figure of 73% of their total number. In the modern world, this factor plays a huge role. Low-quality products, radiation contamination, polluted ecology - all this affects the female body on a daily basis.
To date, preparing for pregnancy,many women are trying to leave the polluted bustling city and spend that time in the most suitable environment. Despite the fact that these factors are not easily eliminated, the mutations associated with them are not considered hereditary, the next pregnancy can be successful.
This factor almost always provokesabortion is already in the early stages. For this reason, if a woman has a Rh factor that is negative and a man has a positive one, this state of affairs can trigger a Rh-conflict and, as a consequence, miscarriage.
To date, medicine has learnedcope with this problem by introducing into the female body progesterone. Thus, the fetus is protected from an aggressive female immune system. However, in this case, there may be a problem of miscarriage.
Experts recommend that during this periodtaking medications, especially in the early stages. It is very important to exclude all analgesics and hormonal drugs. It is also undesirable to use folk recipes in which there are St. John's wort, nettle, cornflower and parsley as ingredients.
The stress factors
Sudden grief, quarrels in the family or stresses on thework - all these are reasons for miscarriage at an early age. It should be minimized or, if possible, avoided these factors. An important role in creating a calm environment for a woman belongs to a man. If it is not possible to avoid the action of stress factors, then doctors prescribe light sedatives.
Even before conception, it is necessary to stop takingalcohol and quit smoking. Smoking can adversely affect the fetal cardiovascular system. It is recommended to build a consistent system of healthy nutrition, with a set of necessary minerals and vitamins. It is also necessary to adjust the daily routine.
Along with the factors listed above,miscarriage at an early age can trigger a severe stroke, fall or lifting of heavy objects. Therefore, you should behave as carefully as possible.
Abortion in the past
This is not only an argument used forintimidation of young women, but also a real factor of problems in the future. In some cases, abortion can lead to infertility and provoke chronic miscarriage.
Non-pregnancy is a multifactoriala disease in which in many patients it is combined with several pathogens at the same time. For this reason, the examination of patients should be carried out in a comprehensive manner and include all modern laboratory, instrumental and clinical methods.
During the examination, not only the causes of spontaneous abortion are established, but the state of the reproductive system is evaluated for the subsequent prevention of the appearance of such a condition.
Examination before pregnancy
The history includes the clarification of the presence of somatic,oncological, hereditary diseases and neuroendocrine pathology. Gynecological history allows you to find out the presence of viral infection, inflammatory diseases of the genitals, features of reproductive and menstrual function (spontaneous abortions, childbirth, abortions), methods of therapy and other surgical interventions, gynecological diseases.
In the process of clinical examination, theexamination, assessment of the skin, thyroid gland and obesity in accordance with the body mass index. According to the hirsut number, the degree of hirsutism is determined, the condition of the internal organs is assessed, as well as the gynecological status. The absence or presence of ovulation, functional status of the ovaries is analyzed according to the menstrual calendar and rectal temperature.
Laboratory and instrumental methods of research
Diagnosis of miscarriage consists of the following studies:
- Hysterosalpinography - performed after the menstrual cycle on the 17-13 day, allows you to exclude intrauterine synechia, malformations of the uterus, ICN.
- Ultrasound - determines the presence of adenomyosis, cysts, uterine fibroids, assesses the condition of the ovaries. Specifies the state of the endometrium: endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, chronic endometritis.
- Infectious screening - it includesmicroscopic examination of vaginal smears, urethra, canal cervical canal and bacteriological examination of cervical canal content, PCR diagnostics, virus-carrying test.
- Hormonal research. It is carried out on the 5th or 7th day of the cycle, subject to regular menstruation, in patients with oligo and amenorrhea - on any day. The content of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA sulfate, cortisol, testosterone, FGS, LH, prolactin is determined. Progesterone can be determined only in patients with a regular cycle: in the first phase of the cycle for 5-7 days, in the second phase of the cycle - on the 6-7th day of rising rectal temperature. In women with adrenal hyperandrogenia, a small trial with dexamethasone is performed to determine the optimal therapeutic dose.
- To determine the risk of miscarriage, it is necessary to determine the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-HG and to analyze the features of the hemostatic system.
- If there is a suspicion of a pathology of the endometrium and / or intrauterine pathology under the control of hysteroscopy, diagnostic scraping is performed.
- If suspicion of the presence of adhesive stress in the pelvis, the pathology of the tubes, genital endometriosis, with scleropolyakistoznye ovaries and uterine myoma is indicated operative laparoscopy.
- A male examination includes a definitionhereditary history, analysis of the expanded spermogram, the presence of neuroendocrine and somatic diseases, as well as clarification of the inflammatory and immune factors.
After the causes that determine the habitual miscarriage of pregnancy are determined, a set of therapeutic measures is appointed.
Observation during pregnancy should begin immediately after its onset, and it consists of the following research methods:
- Determination of DHEA-sulfate and DHEA.
- Periodic determination of HG in the blood.
- Ultrasound scanning.
- If necessary, counseling with a psychotherapist and a psychologist.
In accordance with statistical data,the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is 1 case for 300 pregnancies. Despite the fact that the probability of miscarriage with an increase in the period is reduced, in the last trimester this indicator is about 30%. It also often happens that premature birth and miscarriage in women occur repeatedly. As a result, a diagnosis is established - the habitual miscarriage of pregnancy (treatment will be discussed below).
The causes of this disease are manifold, inmost cases of premature birth or miscarriage leads to a whole complex of them. In this case, their action can be either sequential or simultaneous. A woman who has a tedious job in conjunction with nervous and physical overloads or a low socioeconomic position automatically falls into a risk group.
In addition, factors that increasethe probability of the emergence of pathology, include diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, bronchial asthma, vascular and heart disease, regular intoxication with narcotic substances, alcohol, tobacco smoke. If a woman has complications of pregnancy, or obstructed obstetric history, then this also applies to risk factors for spontaneous miscarriage or abortion. It is important to remember that at short periods spontaneous interruption can be a biological mechanism of natural selection, for this reason, miscarriage is not yet a harbinger of a subsequent unsuccessful pregnancy.
In fact, the prevention of miscarriage is reduced to two main points:
- Timely examination of the body of a woman and a man.
- Healthy lifestyle.
It is very important to determine a man's presence of hereditary diseases, infections, to carry out an analysis of sperm and complete the treatment of all existing problems.
A woman is faced with a more difficult task. It should be clarified whether there were somatic, neuroendocrine, oncological diseases, as are the case with hereditary pathologies.
Also, as part of prevention, the characteristics of reproductive and menstrual function are studied, the presence of obesity and its degree is revealed, the condition of the skin is assessed.
It is also desirable to apply for instrumentalsurveys. Quite informative is hysterosalpingography, which is carried out in the second half of the menstrual cycle. As a result, it is possible to determine whether the patient has intrauterine pathologies. Results of ultrasound of the pelvic organs allow to diagnose the presence of endometriosis, fibroids, cysts, as well as assess the condition of the ovaries.
It is important to study smears from the urethracanal, cervical canal and vagina. Hormonal research is desirable to perform in the first half of the menstrual cycle. In addition, you need to think about conducting a blood test, which will include coagulation indicators. This will allow to determine the presence of antibodies such as anti-HC, anticardoidolipin and lupus.
Treatment of miscarriage occurs in the following sequence: clarification and subsequent elimination of the cause.
One of the causes is fetal infection,occurring as a result of infection of amniotic fluid or penetration through the placenta pathogens. In this case, spontaneous termination of pregnancy occurs subsequently in the contractile activity of the uterus, triggered by acute intoxication or outpouring of amniotic fluid prematurely, which is caused by a change in the structure of the membranes under the action of pathogens of infections. Treatment in such a situation can be successful, since the child's ability to withstand negative factors increases with the increase in the gestational age.
In measures to prevent this diseaseit is necessary to include consultations of the endocrinologist, since hormone deficiency can lead to abnormal restructuring of the endometrium and its exhaustion, which is also considered a prerequisite for miscarriage. Hyperandrogenism (a pathological condition) is also characterized by a hormonal nature and can be the cause of spontaneous interruption.
Acquired or innate organicthe pathology of the organs of the reproductive system is also the cause of miscarriage. In addition, the causes of this disease include psychological overload, stress, the effects of certain medications, various diseases, intimate life in pregnancy.
Even with the diagnosis of the usualmiscarriage, the possibility of spontaneous interruption of it can be significantly reduced if there is constant monitoring by specialists and comprehensive prevention.</ p>>