Meningococcal infection in children. Symptoms of the disease.
Disease caused by gram-negativemicroorganisms meningococcus - called meningococcal infection. In children, the symptoms of this disease, manifested in the form of inflammatory phenomena in the nasal cavity, pharynx, the phenomena of meningitis and meningococcemia. This anthroponotic disease, giving way by air. A healthy carrier of the pathogen is very common.
The causative agent of the disease.
The cause of meningococcal infection is meningococcus,Gram-negative microorganism, unstable in the environment. Getting into the body, it penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid. Meningococcus is sensitive to antibiotics of penicillin, tetracycline. Penetrates into the body with inhaled air. Many people get an asymptomatic meningococcal infection when they get into the pathogen. In children, the symptoms of the disease in uncomplicated forms are similar to an acute respiratory disease. In some cases, the process is localized in the meninges and meningitis develops. A toxic shock may occur.
Meningococcal infection in children, symptoms of the disease
The incubation period of the virus in the body is fromtwo to ten days (an average of about a week). Meningococcal infection in children begins with a prodromal period, characterized by symptoms of intoxication (malaise, irritability, tearfulness, headache) and inflammation of the nasopharynx, rhinitis and nasal congestion, subfebrile temperature. On these symptoms, the disease may end. In more severe cases, meningococcemia may develop - a septic condition that occurs as a result of circulating meningococcus in the blood. There is a strong chill, hectic temperature, hemorrhagic syndrome. It can develop pneumonia, inflammation of large joints, a collapoid state with the transition to coma. A severe form of the disease is meningococcal meningitis. The disease is violent, accompanied by severe headaches, meningeal signs (increased stiff neck muscles, positive pathological reflexes). The child throws back his head, cries, rolls his eyes, muscle tone is raised, tendon reflexes are animated, convulsions can be observed. Older children may have a rash.
Based on complaints, examination andlaboratory diagnostics, a diagnosis is made - a meningococcal infection. In children, the symptoms of a disease with a mild form are not much different from a respiratory viral infection. In more severe cases, blood tests show leukocytosis, with a change in the blood count. With spinal puncture, cerebrospinal fluid flows under pressure. In the beginning of the disease, it is transparent, and after it can be cloudy and purulent. The diagnosis is confirmed when a pathogen is found in the blood.
Severe form of the disease, fraught with developmenttoxic shock with a drop in pressure and a transition to a coma, there may be a violation of the adrenal gland function, edema of the brain with the insertion of the trunk and stopping breathing.
Meningococcal infection, treatment and prevention of disease.
The key to a favorable outcome of the disease isearly detection of the disease and the onset of antibiotic therapy. Apply antibiotics penicillin series, tetracyclines. Dosage is calculated from the weight of the child's body. Duration of treatment is seven to ten days. When there are seizures, anticonvulsant drugs are prescribed, for the relief of edema - diuretics. Posindromnaya therapy aimed at the removal of intoxication, prevention of pressure drop and normalization of the neurological status is carried out.
With timely treatment started, the prognosis is favorable. The ill child is under the supervision of a pediatrician, a neurologist for two years.
Preventive measures are reduced to early detection of patients and their isolation, disinfection in hospitals.