Prevention of viral hepatitis
Infectious diseases are currentlyare the most common among all known pathologies. The main direction in preventing the development of infectious diseases today is vaccination. This is especially true for diseases with high contagiousness and resistance of the viral agent (causative agent) in the external environment.
Prevention of viral hepatitis can beis represented by both specific and non-specific forms. Specific (it's immunoprophylaxis) is reduced to carrying out the appropriate vaccinations. The latter are performed according to the mandatory calendar of preventive vaccinations. However, not all viral hepatitis there is specific prevention, for example, against hepatitis C vaccine does not exist.
Nonspecific prophylaxis of viral hepatitisis reduced to observance of rules of personal hygiene, and also to protection during sexual relations (use of condoms). Necessity of the latter is due to the possibility of viral particles to penetrate through the mucous membranes, microscopic damage to the epithelium. Caution should be shown for any damage to the skin (from piercings and pricks to surgical operations).
Prevention of hepatitis B is reduced tothree-time vaccination within six months. In addition, after a long time, as well as with a decrease in postvaccinal immunity, revaccination is carried out.
In contrast to B, C and D, viral hepatitis Ais an acute disease and proceeds in a clinically pronounced form (icterus of the skin and sclera). After the transferred disease, stable immunity forms.
Hepatitis B and C are chronic and canproceed latently (that is, without pronounced clinical manifestations). Such features of infection significantly complicate both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Later detection of this pathology leads to difficulties in treatment. A long-term disease without treatment leads to the formation of severe complications - fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. The latter, by the way, are incurable, gradual progression of them leads to the formation of severe manifestations of the disease (jaundice, ascites and others).
Especially important is the prevention of viral hepatitis incontact persons with a sick person. First of all, it is connected with the same observance of the rules of personal hygiene, as well as with the emergency vaccination against hepatitis.
Diagnosis of viral hepatitis does not representany complications and is performed both on the basis of changes in the level of hepatic enzymes, and by detecting in the blood of the corresponding antibodies (immunoglobulins).
In the case of foci of viral hepatitisgroup A, isolation and treatment of patients is carried out, chamber disinfection of objects of their use, monitoring of contact persons for thirty-five days (the time of maximum incubation of the infection). If the contacts are children under the age of fourteen years old or pregnant women, the prevention of viral hepatitis is mandatory carried out by intramuscular injection of an immunoglobulin in the amount of 0.5-1.5 milliliters (taking into account the age of the vaccinated). It should be noted that this procedure should be carried out within seven to ten days after contact with the sick person.
Thus, today the prevention of hepatitisis based on its elements of specific prevention (vaccines and vaccines). Also, it is essential to observe the rules of personal hygiene in violation of the integrity of the skin, as well as in the conduct of appropriate medical manipulations.</ p>>