Projective techniques in psychology: the main differences from standardized. Classification
Projective methods are designed toto study the properties of the personality, as well as the characteristics of the intellect. The features that distinguish them from the standardized methods of psychological research are the following.
First, we are talking about featuresstimulus material offered to the respondent. It is characterized by a lack of structuredness, uncertainty and ambiguity. Only in this case it will be possible to "earn" and realize the principle of projection. When the respondent begins to interact with the stimulus material, then it is structured. But in this process, the person begins to project the characteristics of his mental world: anxieties, conflicts, needs, value orientations and so on. Therefore, projective techniques are very convenient to use.
Secondly, the respondent is given a speciala task that is relatively unstructured. She admits a huge number of different answers. It turns out that research, which is carried out using projective techniques, is disguised. The respondent will not be able to guess that in his answers he will be the subject of interpreting the experimenters. That is why projective methods in psychology are subjected to a minimal degree of falsification, rather than those questionnaires, which are built on information about a person.
Thirdly, projective methods differpeculiarities in the processing and interpretation of the results obtained. They are not standardized, since most of them lack a mathematical apparatus in order to obtain an objective treatment of the results obtained. Projective methods of research of personality do not contain any norms. They are based on a qualitative rather than a quantitative approach. Therefore, until now, optimal methods for their verification have not been developed, to what extent they are reliable and valid. Therefore, in order to obtain the most accurate data, it is recommended to correlate the obtained results with the data that are available from the use of other, more reliable methods.
Projective methods are classified for different reasons. The most complete is the following:
- Addition methods, when in the role of stimulusmaterial is a set of words-stimuli. The respondent should call those words that "come to mind" in connection with the word that was heard. For example, the associative test created by K.G. Jung, the technique of "Unfinished sentences." In addition, those methods are very popular, for which it is necessary to give a clear number of answers. For example, the test "Who am I?".
- Methods of interpretation, when asstimulus material acts as a set of pictures and photographs. In this case, the respondent will need to compile a whole story (SAT, TAT), based on the proposed pictures, or to answer those questions that are suggested in situations on them, or you need to select pleasant and unpleasant photo-pictures. For example, the test revealing the frustration of Rosenzweig, the Gilles method or the Sondi test.
- Structuring techniques, when associative relationships are analyzed that arise after viewing stimulus material that is not structured. For example, the interpretation of Rorschach's forms.
- Methods of studying expression, which is performed on the basis of analysis of handwriting or features in speech behavior.
- Analysis of products of human creativity, when the object of interpretation is the picture created by the respondent on the basis of the task. For example, "Two houses", "Pictograph", "Self-portrait" and so on.
Projective techniques are usually an additional method in psychological research.</ p>>