African Orange River - the hope and beauty of the continent
South Africa is poor in any water body, includingand rivers. Those waterways that exist in this area are small, and most of the year are more like long-waterless channels. However, even here there are quite long and wide rivers. The largest of them is Limpopo, famous for Chukovsky, the Orange River (which is not close in color to the orange) and Vaal.
Difficulties of translation
The name of this waterway was presented by Scot Gordon,which was part of the Dutch expedition. However, he did not at all mean the color of her waters. The orange river was named, in order to perpetuate the ruling dynasty of Holland of those years - the Orange. However, the English writing of the dynastic surname (Orange), and the Dutch (Oranj) also denote an orange. The translator, translating the name of the river into Russian, did not penetrate into the motivating arguments of the Scotsman, so the river became Orange. The mistake has long been understood, but the Russian-speaking people are used to the name of the African river: there are riddles, poems and even a cartoon with the mention of the name of this river. So to change the official name did not become.
The Orange River in Africa is the longest waterwayartery (as much as 1865 km). For some distance, the river is the boundary between Namibia and other countries. The source of the Orange River is in the mountains of the Dragon, located in the border zones of Lesotho and South Africa. And the first springs of this river are on the slopes of Mount Mont-o-Sourz, above sea level at 3160 m. At the same time it is called differently at the mountains - Sinku. Only replenished with the tributaries, the Orange River gets the right to the usual name. After all, it becomes quite full after this. By the way, most of the so-called tributaries can be ignored when calculating the Orange filling, since they are seasonal, shallow and very dependent on the amount of precipitation. A significant contribution to the fullness is made only by Vaal and Caledon - themselves (by African standards) are not so small rivers.
Finish becomes the Atlantic Ocean, whereflows into the river Orange. An interesting fact can be considered that the place of the confluence of the river with the Atlantic is the Namib desert, which in translation means "Coast of skeletons".
Most of the "body" of the river is in the territoryNamibia, South Africa and the neighbor-Lesotho. At a distance of tens of kilometers after replenishing the waters with tributaries, Orange pleases the eye with breadth and fullness. However, having reached arid places, it appreciably becomes shallow. In the dry season, it is not difficult to ford it, while the woman does not even wet her skirt (unless she wears a ball gown).
In principle, the Orange River can also beis related to seasonal: its fullness is very dependent on precipitation. And the path, which lies in the immediate vicinity of Kalahari, is very conducive to the strong evaporation of water. That is why the Orange River in Africa is not navigable.
From the north side of the Orange River through the desertsand simply the arid regions bear their waters of Noob, Kuruman, Mololo and some other rivers that are less noticeable than the same Limpopo, Waal or Orange. However, first of all, these are drying up beds, which become rivers only during rains, so geographers call them seasonal. It is not surprising - the path of these waterways passes through one of the most terrible deserts - the Kalahari, where there is nowhere to take water for reservoirs. Yet for a rainy time they manage to save everything that can survive in the desert.
The majestic waterfall
The world famous is the Victoria Falls,which is considered the largest, beautiful and watery on this continent. However, this is one of the most grandiose geographical misconceptions. The orange river boasts a much more magnificent spectacle, which belongs to the national park.
The waterfall Augrabis was so named by the Finn by the surnameVicar. The name of something like the local residents - the Boers - and subsequently became international. Augrabis - a higher waterfall than Victoria, and more water. The upper point, from where the water in the canyon is overthrown, rises to 146 meters, and the dip itself reaches a depth of almost 200 meters.
Little known waterfall is easy to explain: around the Orange and Augrabis stretches a frightening Kalahari, almost always impassable even for well-equipped expeditions. Even in the hot season, when the Orange River turns almost into a trickle, getting close to the precipice to admire the waterfall is deadly because of unstable and slippery stones. And in the high water the whole floodplain of the river becomes inaccessible because of the violent floods of the waters; Even conditional roads turn into muddy mud flows. So rave reviews can be heard mainly from those who watched Augrabis from the helicopter.
Feeding the river
The orange river feeds mainly on rain, inconnection with what the "regime of life" in her flood. Spills are observed from November to the end of March, with a maximum they reach between mid-February and March. Local states are trying to revive the supervised lands with the help of Orange and its tributary Vaal. Since the 66th of the last century the project of creating an irrigation system has been implemented, which should cover more than 30,000 hectares of land. The completion was planned for the end of the 20th century, but so far the construction finale is not visible.
Although Africa is considered the most waterless territory on Earth, and on it there is a place for beauty, rivers and waterfalls.</ p>>