Discipline history of economics
As an independent branch of science historyeconomy emerged in the second half of the XIX century, when it separated from the political economy. This need arose in connection with the need to scientifically comprehend the development of economic processes in society in the historical aspect. The role of the economy in the life of society required independent study, for this we needed a comparative analysis of all socio-economic trends in world development, with the help of this analysis it was possible to identify specific features that differentiate the development of the economy in different regions of the planet and various countries, taking into account the specifics of their development, geographical conditions, specifics of traditions and mentality.
Separation of the history of the economy into a separateindependent science was also associated with the need to understand various socio-economic reforms that were carried out in different countries under the influence of global objective trends of development under similar and approximately identical conditions. Already at the end of the XIX century the history of the economy became an independent discipline, which was taught in many higher educational institutions. With the help of this subject, specialists were trained who were able to carry out reformist activities, using knowledge of the historical experience of reform and drawing on this experience.
For the practical use of the history of the economyit also requires unconditional knowledge of economic theory, the ability to determine and use the patterns of economic development and to know the specific features of different economic systems. Studies in the historical and economic field have reached important significance in world science. Since 1960, international congresses have been regularly held and international centers for coordinating economic research have been established. In 1962 the international association of economic history was founded. Undoubtedly, the history of the Russian economy has also undergone a thorough study and research.
The subject of the history of the economy is onthe intersection of the three directions of studying the history and development of human society. This is history, as well as the theory of economics and the very concrete economy. Such a character of the history of the economy, which is integral, creating its complex structure, inevitably leads to a multiplicity of immediate objects for study. If we take everything in general terms, then the history itself is the study of the origin, formation and development of the economic processes and phenomena themselves.
When studying the economic history of individualregions and states, the peculiarities of their historical development, the influence of these features on such development, economic causes and various consequences of different historical events, as well as the economic policy of the state and the consequences resulting from it, are used as an object for study. The study of the history of the national economy examines the development of the mechanism of the functioning of the economy, studies the evolution of economic systems, the history of development of various sectors of the economy, and its individual processes - industrialization and urbanization, the development of market relations and cooperation, the degree of centralization and directivity of the economy, the history of development and use of taxation , as well as finances, loans and incomes.
Complexity in the study of the history of the economy createsThe need for a combination of different forms and methods of scientific research. The main methods are the historical method, logic, classification method, historical modeling method, comparative-historical, chronological, socio-psychological and others.