The Chechen war is an armed confrontationbetween the Armed Forces of Russia and the unrecognized Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. These events are among the most gloomy in the modern history of Russia. The events unfolded in two campaigns, sometimes distinguishing two Chechen wars: the first - from 1994 to 1996, the second - from 1999 to 2009.
In autumn 1991, during the statethe parliament of the Chechen-Ingush Republic was removed from power. At the same time, the Chechen-Ingush Republic was divided into Chechen and Ingush. In Chechnya, elections were held that were deemed illegal by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, because they were more of an idea than actually elections. Thus, separatists led by Jokhar Dudayev broke through to power in Chechnya. On October 27 Dudayev was declared president, and on November 1 independence of Chechnya was proclaimed. Chechnya was named the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. In the spring of 1992, the republic's constitution was adopted. This state was not recognized by any state in the world.
Chechnya was in the economic and politicalcrisis: within 1991-1994, the criminal economy (abductions and trafficking in human beings, arms trade, drug business) flourishes, there is an armed confrontation between Dudayev and the opposition, ethnic cleansing is taking place against the non-Chechen population, primarily against the Russians. The Russian leadership tried to introduce a state of emergency in Chechnya, but without success. Several rounds of talks also led to nothing. Chechen leaders wanted the central authorities to recognize an independent Chechnya. In the meantime, Chechen militants carried out the seizure of weapons, military depots, and this was done with the consent of the Russian Defense Minister Grachev.
On 11 December 1994, theRussian troops on the territory of Chechnya. The first Chechen war began. The army came from three directions and was aimed at Grozny. On New Year's Eve, troops began to storm Grozny. On February 22, 1995 the city was taken, the movement of Russian troops deep into Chechnya began. By the summer of 1995, Dudayev's troops were in a very difficult situation. On June 14, a hostage-taking took place in Budenovsk (Stavropol Territory), which led to the beginning of negotiations between the Russian authorities and the separatists and the delay in military operations on the part of Russia. In April 1996, the leader of Chechen militants Dudayev was eliminated. In August 1996, the separatists managed to capture Grozny. On August 31, 1996 the parties signed an agreement, which is called the Khasavyurt agreements. Under the terms of the treaty, a truce was declared, the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya, the issue of independence was postponed until 2001.
After the end of the first campaign in Chechnyaestablished a regime characterized by criminal economy (kidnapping, drug trafficking, arms trafficking), officially sanctioned blood feud, genocide of people of non-Chechen nationality. The idea of Islamic extremists circulated in the republic, Chechen terrorists carry out terrorist acts outside Chechnya in Russia. In August 1999, separatist forces led by Basayev and Khattab invade Dagestan. Russian troops repel the attack and enter Chechnya.
Since the battles with Basayev and Khattab, the secondChechen War. On September 30, 1999, troops entered Chechnya. The end of this war is usually considered on April 16, 2009, when the CTO regime was abolished in Chechnya. Sometimes they say that the Chechen war is still going on.
The war brought great damage to the Russian people. This, first of all, is expressed in the human losses of Russian soldiers and officers, as well as civilians. Losses can not be calculated accurately. The data vary from 10 to 26 thousand dead soldiers. In any case, the Russian-Chechen war has become a personal tragedy for a huge number of people.</ p>>