The rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea: list, description, features and nature
The Caspian Sea is one of the largest salinethe Earth's reservoirs, located at the junction of Europe and Asia. Its total area is about 370 thousand square meters. km. The reservoir receives more than 100 water streams. The largest rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea are the Volga, the Urals, Emba, Terek, Sulak, Samur, Kura, Atrek, Sefidrud.
River Volga - the pearl of Russia
Volga is a river flowing on the territory of the Russian Federation,partially crosses Kazakhstan. It belongs to the category of the largest and longest rivers on Earth. The total length of the Volga is more than 3500 km. The river originates in the Volgoverkhovye village of the Tver region, located on the Valdai Upland. After that, it continues its movement through the territory of the Russian Federation.
The Volga River flows into the Caspian Sea, but nothas a direct outlet to the World Ocean, so it is referred to as internal sewage. The watercourse receives about 200 tributaries and has more than 150 thousand gutters. Today, the reservoirs have been built on the river, which makes it possible to regulate the runoff, due to which the water level fluctuations have sharply decreased.
Fishing for the river is varied. In the Volga region melon-growing predominates: the fields are occupied by grain and technical crops; cooked salt is extracted. Oil and gas fields were discovered in the Urals region. The Volga is the largest river flowing into the Caspian Sea, therefore it is of great importance for Russia. The main transport structure that allows to cross this stream is the Presidential Bridge. It is the longest in Russia.
Ural River in Eastern Europe
The Urals, like the Volga River, flow in the territorytwo states - Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The historical name is Yaik. It originates in Bashkortostan on the top of the Uraltau ridge. The Ural River flows into the Caspian Sea. Its basin is the sixth largest in Russia, and the area is more than 230 square meters. km. An interesting fact: the Ural River, contrary to popular belief, refers to the internal European river, and only its upper course in Russia refers to Asia.
The mouth of the watercourse gradually becomes shallow. At this point the river is divided into several branches. This feature is typical throughout the length of the riverbed. During the floods one can observe how the Urals emerges from their shores, in principle, like many other rivers of Russia, flowing into the Caspian Sea. Especially it is observed in places with a shallow coastal line. Flooding occurs at a distance of up to 7 meters from the channel.
Emba - the river of Kazakhstan
Emba - the river flowing on the territory of the RepublicKazakhstan. The name came from the Turkmen language, literally translated as "the valley of food". The river basin area of 40 thousand square meters. km. The river starts its journey in the mountains of Mugodzhary and, flowing along the Caspian lowland, is lost among the marshes. Asking which rivers flow into the Caspian Sea, we can say that in the full-flowing years, Emba reaches its basin.
Throughout the coastline of the river there is miningsuch natural resources as oil and gas. The issue of the border between Europe and Asia along the Emba watercourse, as in the case with the river. Ural, an open topic today. The reason for this is the natural factor: the mountains of the Ural Ridge, which are the main reference point for the border, disappear, forming a homogeneous terrain.
Terek - mountain water stream
Terek is the river of the North Caucasus. The name is literally translated from Turkic as "poplar". The Terek flows from the glacier of the Zilga-Khokh mountain, located in the Trusov Gorge of the Caucasian Range. The riverbed passes through the lands of many states: North Ossetia, Georgia, Stavropol Territory, Kabardino-Balkaria, Dagestan and the Chechen Republic. It flows into the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Arkhangelsk. The length of the river is just over 600 km, the pool area is about 43 thousand square meters. km. An interesting fact is that every 60-70 years the flow forms a new transit sleeve, the old one at the same time loses its power and disappears.
Terek, like other rivers flowing into the Caspiansea, is widely used to meet human economic needs: it is used for irrigation of arid territories of adjacent lowlands. Also on the water stream are several HPPs, the total annual production of which is more than 200 million kWh. In the near future, it is planned to launch new additional stations.
Sulak - water flow of Dagestan
Sulak is a river that connects the Avarskoe Koisu streams andThe Andean Cois. It flows on the territory of Dagestan. The beginning takes in the main Sulak canyon and completes its way in the waters of the Caspian Sea. The main purpose of the river is water supply of two cities of Dagestan - Makhachkala and Kaspiisk. Also, several HPPs are already located on the river, new ones are planned to be launched to increase the generated capacity.
Samur is the pearl of Southern Dagestan
Samur River is the second largest riverin Dagestan. Literally the name from the Indo-Aryan is translated as "an abundance of water". It begins at the foot of Mount Huton; In the waters of the Caspian Sea it is poured into two sleeves - Samur and Maly Samur. The total length of the river is just over 200 km.
All rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea havegreat importance for the territories, which flow. Samur is no exception. The main thrust of the river is irrigation of the land and provision of drinking water to the inhabitants of nearby cities. It is because of this that a hydro power plant and a number of water intake facilities of the Samur-Divichinsky Canal were built.
At the beginning of the 20th century (2010), Russia and Azerbaijansigned an interstate agreement requiring both sides to use the resources of the Samur River rationally. The same agreement made territorial changes between these countries. The border of the two states has been moved to the middle of the hydroelectric complex.
Kura - the largest river of Transcaucasia
Asking which rivers flow intoThe Caspian Sea, I want to describe the flow of the Kura. It flows on the ground at once three states: Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan. The length of the stream is more than 1000 km, the total area of the basin is about 200 thousand square meters. km. Part of the basin is located on the territory of Armenia and Iran. The source of the river is in the Turkish province of Kars, flows into the waters of the Caspian Sea. The path of the river is thorny, laid among the hollows and gorges, for which it received its name, which in the translation from Megrelian means "gnaw", that is, the Kura River, "gnawing" itself among the mountains.
There are many cities on it, such asBorjomi, Tbilisi, Mtskheta and others. It plays an important role in satisfying the economic needs of the inhabitants of these cities: the fishing industry is underway, the hydroelectric power station is located, and the Mingechevir reservoir, created on the river, is one of the main fresh water reserves for Azerbaijan. Unfortunately, the ecological state of the stream leaves much to be desired: the level of harmful substances exceeds several times the limits of permissible norms.
Features of the Atrek River
Atrek is a river located on the territory of Iran andOf Turkmenistan. It originates in the Turkmen-Harasan Mountains. Because of active use in economic needs for irrigation, the river has become shallower. For this reason, it reaches the Caspian Sea only during the flood period.
Sephidraud - a large river of the Caspian Sea
Sefidrud is a large river of the Iranian state. Originally formed by the merger of two water streams - Kyzyluzen and Shahrud. Now it flows from the Shabanau reservoir and flows into the depths of the Caspian Sea. The total length of the river is over 700 km. The creation of a reservoir has become a necessity. It has made it possible to minimize the risks of flooding, thereby securing the city located in the delta of the river. Water is used to irrigate lands with a total area of more than 200 thousand hectares of land.
As can be seen from the presented material, waterThe resources of the Earth are in an unsatisfactory state. The rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea are actively used by man to meet their needs. And this adversely affects their condition: the watercourses are depleted and polluted. That is why scientists around the world are sounding the alarm and conducting active propaganda, calling for saving and saving water on Earth.</ p>>