Tsvetaeva House-Museum in Moscow: in the past and today
Fans of the great poetess MarinaTsvetaeva, of course, knows everything about her. From time to time, they visit her home to look again at the little things that she used in everyday life. Today, the house-museum of Marina Tsvetaeva is organized in Moscow. It is a state budget institution and a cultural center of the Russian capital.
Information about the museum
It is located at: Moscow, Borisoglebsky pereulok, house 6. Tsvetaeva's house-museum in Moscow works on different days of the week on different schedules. On Mondays here the day off, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and also on Saturdays and Sundays, the center operates from noon to 7 pm, on Thursday - 2 hours longer, that is, until 21.00. The last Friday of the month is also a day off.
The Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva in Moscow, which ismemorial complex, was opened in 1992 on the 100th anniversary of the poetess. The idea to found such a cultural center belongs to both public organizations and private individuals, in particular D. Likhachev. Thanks to the museum's exposition, we learn about the life and everyday life of the family members of the poetess and Marina Ivanovna herself. The museum also houses Russian and foreign archives, a scientific library, a "cafe of poets" and a concert hall where literary evenings are held. Since 2016, EI Zhuk was appointed director of the Tsvetaeva Museum in Moscow.
In this house the great poetess lived during herof youth from 1914 to 1922. Other members of her family lived here with her. This house was built in the middle of the 19th century, in 1862, in the architectural style of classicism. He had 2 floors, which housed 4 apartments. Later, under the same address, several other buildings (four houses and outbuildings) were built, which were united by a green courtyard, in the corner of which there was a well. All this was behind the cast-iron gates. The apartment house in which the family of the Tsvetaevs rented a house had a peculiar architecture, especially in the interior: a lot of stairs, narrow corridors, cozy rooms, etc. Those who are going to the Tsvetaeva Museum in Moscow can see it with their own eyes.
Years of life in Borisoglebsky Lane
MI Tsvetaeva, her husband S. Ya. Efron and daughter Alya settled here in the early autumn of 1914. They lived very quietly and peacefully. In 1915, Marina Ivanovna met Sofya Parnok, a poetess, and a year later with Mandelshtam, whose feelings immediately flashed up to her. Her husband either did not notice anything, or pretended. He idolized his wife.
1916 was very fruitful for the poetess. Her poems were published monthly in the "Northern Notes". This period was also the happiest in her life. She after the birth of her daughter blossomed in a special way, wore dresses in the floor, decorating them with accessories made of amber and amethyst.
But the idyll of her family was destroyed by war andrevolution, which led to hunger, poverty, and cold. In April 1917, she gave birth to a second daughter, whom her parents called Irina. In January 1918, the poet's husband Efron volunteers for the army and disappears for several years. The house in which they lived and which today is a museum of Tsvetaeva in Moscow, turns into a hostel. They are left with several rooms and kitchen.
To provide the daughters with warmth, Marina Ivanovnais forced to cut down all furniture: chairs, cabinets, shelves. All together they are arranged for the winter in the kitchen to somehow warm up. She changes her favorite grand piano to a low grade flour, from which she cooks porridge. She does not have enough paper for creativity, and she begins to write down her compositions on the wallpaper. At some point, Marina Tsvetaeva, thinking of her innocent little crumbs, gives them to the Kuntsevo shelter. This decision is given to her with difficulty, but in fact so they will at least be fed. But little Irina, left without maternal care, dies.
In 1921 the poet learns that her husband is alive and he is in Istanbul (Constantinople). At the same time, the news of the death of Blok and Gumilyov reaches her. A year later, after taking Alu from the orphanage, she went abroad.
House in the years of the Soviets
During the years of Soviet power this one in the pastThe pretty house remained a large communal apartment. Naturally, no one was courting him, and he was all dilapidated and dilapidated, collapsed, eventually lost his former appearance. For the authorities, he did not represent any cultural and historical value. In 1930, even talked about his demolition. Then there was the Patriotic War, and this was out of the question. In 1979, they started talking again about the fact that the house in which M. Tsvetaeva used to live must be demolished. An official decision was made, the tenants were evicted, water and electricity were turned off. And here is one of the tenants, namely Nadezhda Kataeva-Lytkina refused to move out of there, and the process had to be suspended. The house was saved.
The idea of creating a museum Tsvetaeva in Moscow
During the perestroika years, several publicorganizations began to struggle to ensure that the great Russian poetess had his own museum, and it was impossible to find a better place for this than the house in which her happiest years passed. However, this idea was realized only after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992.</ p>>